Kazakhstan is largely populated by Kazakh people, one of the many Turkic descendants in the Eurasian world. But I've decided to include Kazakhstan in our discussion of Europe over countries like its neighbors Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for more reasons than they happen to be a bit further west. One reasons we've included Kazakhstan is because of its association with the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Of course both Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan were part of the Soviet Empire, but not nearly as many European ethnic people were forcefully moved east into Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan as they were to Kazakhstan. Another reason for the inclusion is their link to the more ancient Turkish nomadic group of Cuman people who we mentioned in our post on Transnistria. Again, Cumania had stretches into the other to -stan countries but not isn't as deeply rooted. The reason for the importance of Cuman people is that they influenced more western places like Bulgaria, Moldova and the Ukraine. But the primary reason we've chosen to include Kazakhstan is because a lot of lists of European countries include them and we're just trying to cover as much European history as possible so we'll throw them in there for good measure.
Other than human ancestors it seems the earliest people to inhabit Kazakhstan was the Kelteminar Culture. Confusingly, in light of the preceding paragraph, the Kelteminar Culture was a sedentary culture of fishermen that settled around the Aral Sea in modern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
Eurasia is killing me.
The Kelteminar Culture was primarily a neolithic culture but began to dabble in copper working and thus, became a Chalcolithic culture. As they advanced in metallurgy they became a Bronze Age culture that exported its wares throughout the Caucuses and Eastern and Central Europe (as well as western Asia).
|BMAC Bronze Bullhead|
|Mummified boot dating to 1800 BC|
|Boot used to ride through Kazakhstan in 2007.|